The Piano Concerto No. 2 in B-flat major, Op. 83 by Johannes Brahms is separated by a gap of 22 years from his first piano concerto. Brahms began work on the piece in 1878 and completed it in 1881 while in Pressbaum near Vienna. It is dedicated to his teacher, Eduard Marxsen. The premiere of the concerto was given in Budapest on November 9, 1881, with Brahms as soloist, and was an immediate success. He proceeded to perform the piece in many cities across Europe.
The piece is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (B-flat), 2 bassoons, 4 horns (initially 2 in B-flat bass, 2 in F), 2 trumpets (B-flat), timpani (B-flat and F), and strings. (The trumpets and timpani are used only in the first two movements, which is unusual.)
The piece is in four movements, rather than the three typical of concertos in the Classical and Romantic periods:
Allegro non troppo (B-flat major)
Allegro appassionato (D minor)
Andante (B-flat major)
Allegretto grazioso (B-flat major)
The additional movement results in a concerto considerably longer than most other concertos written up to that time, with typical performances lasting around 50 minutes. Upon its completion, Brahms sent its score to his friend, the surgeon and violinist Theodor Billroth to whom Brahms had dedicated his first two string quartets, describing the work as “some little piano pieces.” Brahms even described the stormy scherzo as a “little wisp of a scherzo.”
Allegro non troppo
The first movement is in the concerto variant of sonata form. The main theme is introduced with a horn solo, with the piano interceding. The woodwind instruments proceed to introduce a small motif (borrowed, perhaps unconsciously, from the opening of the first movement of his Serenade No. 2) before an unusually placed cadenza appears. The full orchestra repeats the theme and introduces more motifs in the orchestral exposition. The piano and orchestra work together to develop these themes in the piano exposition before the key changes to F minor (from F major, the dominant) and the piano plays a powerful and difficult section before the next orchestral tutti appears. The development, like many such sections in the Classical period, works its way from the dominant key back to the tonic while heavily developing themes. At the beginning of the recapitulation, the theme is replayed before a differing transition is heard, returning to the music heard in the piano exposition (this time in B-flat major / B-flat minor). A coda appears after the minor key section, finishing off this movement.
This scherzo is in the key of D minor and is in ternary form. Contrary to Brahms’ “tiny wisp of a scherzo” remark, it is a tumultuous movement. The piano and orchestra introduce the theme and develop it before a quiet section intervenes. Soon afterwards the piano and orchestra launch into a stormy development of the theme before coming to the central episode (in D major). The central episode is brisk and begins with the full orchestra before yet another quiet section intervenes; then the piano is integrated into the orchestral effect to repeat the theme of the central episode. The beginning section returns but is highly varied.
The slow movement is in the tonic key of B-flat major and is unusual in utilizing an extensive cello solo within a piano concerto. Brahms subsequently rewrote the cello’s theme and changed it into a song, Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer (“My Slumber Grows Ever More Peaceful”) with lyrics by Hermann Van Lingg. (Op. 105, No. 2). Within the concerto, the cello plays the theme for the first three minutes, before the piano comes in. However, the gentler melodic piece that the piano plays soon gives way to a stormy theme in B-flat minor. When the storm subsides, still in the minor key, the piano plays a transitional motif that leads to the key of G-flat major, before the cello comes in to reprise, in the wrong key, and knowing that it has to get back to B-flat major, the piano and the orchestra make a transition to finish off the theme in its original home key of B-flat major. After the piano plays the transitional motifs, the piano quickly reprises the middle section in a major key before the final coda is established.
The last movement consists of five clearly distinguishable sections, which introduce and develop five different themes.
The first section (bars 1 to 64) presents themes 1 and 2. The first theme (also the “main theme”) (1-8) is first played by the piano and then repeated by the orchestra. The second theme (16-20) is likewise presented by the piano and repeated – and expanded – by the orchestra. Finally, a kind of development of the first theme leads on to the next section.
The second section (65-164) contains the next three themes. Theme 3 (65-73) is very different from the previous ones, due largely to its minor setting and its distinctive, Hungarian rhythm. Theme 4 (81-88) is still in a minor and theme 5 (97-104) is in F major. These three themes are each repeated back and forth several times, which gives the section the character of a development.
The third section (165-308) can be seen as a reprise of the first; it is built on the first two themes, but a striking new element is given in 201-205 and repeated in 238-241.
The fourth section (309-376) reprises themes 3, 5 and 4, in that order.
The final section, the coda, is built on the main theme, but even here (398) Brahms presents a new element, restating the main theme in triple rhythm (a device he used earlier to end his violin concerto) over a little march, first played by the piano, then answered by the orchestra, which trades themes with the soloist before the final chords.
Benoît B. Mandelbrot (20 November 1924 – 14 October 2010) was a Polish-born, French and American mathematician, noted for developing a “theory of roughness” in nature and the field of fractal geometry to help prove it, which included coining the word “fractal”. He later discovered the Mandelbrot set of intricate, never-ending fractal shapes, named in his honor.
While he was a child, his family fled to France in 1936 to escape the growing Nazi persecution of Jews. After World War II ended in 1945, Mandelbrot studied mathematics, graduating from universities in Paris and the U.S., receiving a masters degree in aeronautics from Caltech. He spent most of his career in both the U.S. and France, having dual French and American citizenship. In 1958 he began working for IBM, where he stayed for 35 years and was an IBM Fellow.
Because of his access to IBM’s computers, Mandelbrot was one of the first to use computer graphics to create and display fractal geometric images, leading to his discovering the Mandelbrot set in 1979. By doing so, he was able to show how visual complexity can be created from simple rules. He said that things typically considered to be “rough”, a “mess” or “chaotic”, like clouds or shorelines, actually had a “degree of order”. His research career included contributions to such fields as geology, medicine, cosmology, engineering and the social sciences. Science writer Arthur C. Clarke credits the Mandelbrot set as being “one of the most astonishing discoveries in the entire history of mathematics”.
Toward the end of his career, he was Sterling Professor of Mathematical Sciences at Yale University, where he was the oldest professor in Yale’s history to receive tenure.Mandelbrot also held positions at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Université Lille Nord de France, Institute for Advanced Study and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. During his career, he received over 15 honorary doctorates and served on many science journals, along with winning numerous awards. His autobiography, The Fractalist, was published in 2012.
The Bridge is a 2006 British-American documentary film by Eric Steel that consists of the results of one year’s filming of the Golden Gate Bridge in 2004, which captured a number of suicides, and additional filming of family and friends of some of the identified people who had thrown themselves from the bridge.
The film was inspired by an article titled “Jumpers“, written by Tad Friend, that appeared in The New Yorker magazine in 2003. Friend writes that “Survivors often regret their decision in midair, if not before”, and suicide attempt survivor Ken Baldwin explains “I instantly realized that everything in my life that I’d thought was unfixable was totally fixable—except for having just jumped.
Steel interviewed relatives and friends of the suicide victims, not informing them that he had footage of their loved ones’ deaths. He claimed that, “All the family members now, at this point, have seen the film, [and are] glad that they had participated in it.” He filmed 120 hours of interviews.
The project was kept secret to avoid a situation where someone would “get it into his or her head to go to the bridge and immortalize him or herself on film.” The camera crew consisted of 12 people that showed up each morning for an entire year to film the bridge.
During filming, on average, one person jumped off the Golden Gate Bridge every 15 days. In an interview by the British Broadcasting Corporation, Steel states that as the death count was approaching one thousand, there was a rash of jumpers including people jumping with signs reading “I’m 1,000.”
In the beginning of January to February 2004, the film crew captured only splashes on the water and only knew from the Coast Guard arriving on the scene that someone had leaped. The first jumper caught with the telephoto lens was not behaving as filmmakers expected – crying and weeping – but, rather, was jogging; talking on his cellphone; laughing, and then suddenly put his things away and leaped to his death.
The film shows many jumpers, and also, many people being saved from jumping. In one case a woman traversed the upper railing to the lower railing only to be pulled by her collar back to safety by a photographer. Filmmakers tried in each case to intercede when they could, succeeding in preventing six jumps. But in most cases there was either no warning, or no time to prevent the jump.
The documentary also has an interview of Kevin Hines who jumped in 2000, and survived because, as he fell toward the water, decided that he wanted to live after all, and positioned himself so he hit the water feet first. He suffered serious injuries to his spine but his life was saved by a black seal swimming below him. He later attributed the seal’s presence as a sign from God.
The documentary caused significant controversy when bridge officials charged Steel with misleading them about his intentions. He secured a permit to film the bridge for months and captured 23 of 24 known suicides that took place during the filming phase of the project. In his permit application to the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, a government agency that does not have any jurisdiction over the bridge but that does manage nearby park areas, Steel said he intended “to capture the powerful, spectacular intersection of monument and nature that takes place every day at the Golden Gate Bridge”. Shooting lasted the entirety of 2004, ending with almost 10,000 hours of footage filmed.
A Ponte(Documentário Completo – Legendado em Português)
Kevin Briggs: The bridge between suicide and life
For many years Sergeant Kevin Briggs had a dark, unusual, at times strangely rewarding job: He patrolled the southern end of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge, a popular site for suicide attempts. In a sobering, deeply personal talk Briggs shares stories from those he’s spoken — and listened — to standing on the edge of life. He gives a powerful piece of advice to those with loved ones who might be contemplating suicide.
Foi adicionada mais uma seleção de composições na seção de “Músicas e Músicos” do Drink: “Luna Lee“.
As composições escolhidas foram: Voodoo Chile (Jimi Hendrix), All Along The Watchtower (Bob Dylan), Sleepwalk (Santo & Johnny), Starry Night (Joe Satriani), Manhattan (Eric Johnson), Scuttle Buttin (SRV), The Great Gig In The Sky (Pink Floyd), Little Wing (Jimi Hendrix), Midnight Drive (Tommy Emmanuel), Officially Missing You (Tamia), Bold As Love (Jimi Hendrix), Tender Surrender (Steve Vai), Smooth (Santana), Just The Two Of Us (Bill Withers), Determination (Tommy Emmanuel)
Para apreciar mais esta seleção clique em “Luna Lee“.
E, para seu maior prazer, observe a nota abaixo, que vale para todas as músicas:
Recomendo enfaticamente a utilização de um bom par de fones ou conjunto de caixas acústicas, para poder apreciar em sua totalidade a riqueza de sons dos diversos instrumentos tocados nas músicas.
The parents of James Leininger were first puzzled and then disturbed when their two-year-old son began screaming out chilling phrases during recurrent nightmares, such as, “Plane on fire! Little man can’t get out!”
The centerpiece of a loving family of three, James was a happy, playful toddler who had only just begun stringing together sentences. Determined to understand what was happening to their son, Bruce and Andrea set off on a journey of discovery that was to rock them to their core. For the more they researched the arcane comments and fragmented details little James revealed, the more they were drawn inescapably to a shocking conclusion: that James was reliving the life of James Huston, a World War II fighter pilot who was killed in the battle for Iwo Jima– over sixty years ago!
Through painstaking research and conversations with war veterans and surviving members of James Huston’s family, Bruce and Andrea were forced to confront their skepticism and reexamine their entire belief system. In the process, they not only managed to solve the mystery of their son’s statements. They also uncovered revelations about James Huston’s life and wartime experiences that could finally bring peace and healing to his loved ones, decades after his death.
This book features stunning drawings from James Leininger illustrating his unshakable memories, photos that portray the eerie resemblance between young James and the adult James Huston, and a foreword from world-renowned past lives expert Carol Bowman. In SOUL SURVIVOR, readers will come to know and believe in the special child.
“James Leininger’s story is the most compelling evidence so far for reincarnation.”
–T.J. MacGregor, Edgar-winning author of Running Time
“Whether you believe in reincarnation or not, you can’t help being impressed by the compelling evidence in its favor from this story of James Leininger, an American child who has recurring memories of a past life as World War II fighter pilot, James Huston, who was killed in the battle for Iwo Jima. Soul Survivor is a fascinating read; highly recommended.” –Phyllis Vega author of What Your Birthday Reveals About You and Lovestrology
“Soul Survivor describes the case of James Leininger, a spectacular example of the phenomenon of young children who seem to remember previous lives. We are fortunate that one of our guides for the story is James’ father Bruce, who approaches the situation with a critical attitude. His insistence on doubting each piece of information until it can be verified makes the eventual conclusion that James’s parents reach–that he is indeed remembering the life of a deceased World War II pilot–well-earned. Anyone interested in the possibility of past-life memories, or anyone who thinks it can be easily dismissed, needs to read this book. ” –Jim B. Tucker, M.D., Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences at the University of Virginia and author of Life Before Life: A Scientific Investigation of Children’s Memories of Previous Lives
“I believe with all my heart that James is James again. His story is riveting. I am sure this book will cause readers to see the truth: That we do come back here again, so we should make the most of the chances we have this time around.” –Concetta Bertoldi, author of the New York Times bestseller Do Dead People Watch You in the Shower? –This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
Veja, também o “The History of Political Correctness” by William S Lind e seu ensaio original “Who Stole Our Culture” aqui.
William S. Lind is a military historian theorist, a former defense specialist on Capitol Hill, and a long time associate of conservative leader Paul Weyrich. He is also a pundit on cultural conservatism.
Mr. Lind has a Bachelor’s degree from Dartmouth College and a Master’s degree in history from Princeton University.
Lind formerly was director of the Center for Cultural Conservatism at the Free Congress Foundation. The author of many books and articles on military strategy and war, he first expounded the theories of Fourth Generation warfare in an article in the Marine Corps Gazette in 1989. He writes for many publications, including The American Conservative magazine.
A documentary which is exploring the impact of racism on a global scale, as part of the season of programmes marking the 200th anniversary of the abolition of slavery. Beginning by assessing the implications of the relationship between Europe, Africa and the Americas in the 15th century, it considers how racist ideas and practices developed in key religious and secular institutions, and how they showed up in writings by European philosophers Aristotle and Immanuel Kant.
Looking at Scientific Racism, invented during the 19th century, an ideology that drew on now discredited practices such as phrenology and provided an ideological justification for racism and slavery. These theories ultimately led to eugenics and Nazi racial policies of the master race. Some upsetting scenes.
The third and final episode of Racism: A History examines the impact of racism in the 20th Century. By 1900, European colonial expansion had reached deep into the heart of Africa. Under the rule of King Leopold II, The Belgian Congo was turned into a vast rubber plantation. Men, women and children who failed to gather their latex quotas would have their limbs dismembered. The country became the scene of one of the century’s greatest racial genocides, as an estimated 10 million Africans perished under colonial rule. Contains scenes which some viewers may find disturbing.
Foi adicionada mais uma seleção de composições na seção de “Músicas e Músicos” do Drink: “Lalo Schifrin“.
As composições escolhidas foram: Mission Impossible, More Mission, The Blues for Johann Sebastian Bach, Marquis De Sade, Renaissance, Aria, Troubadour, The Wig, Versailles Promenade, Bossa Antique, 007 Theme, Venice After Dark, The Fox, Danube Incident, Bullit, The Exorcist (Unused Theme), Dirty Harry, Magnum Force, Jaws, Rush Hour, Bolero, Montuno, Charley Varrick, Enter The Dragon